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发布日期:2012-09-13 10:34:00 来源:考试大

  一、Television Program and Their Effect on children

  Television programs regularly entertain, educate, effect and even frighten the majority of our children. Most children are allowed to watch whatever program is on, with little thought on the effect that particular show will have on a child. Most programs can be classed as beneficial or harmful, according to what effect the program might have on a child.

  The beneficial television programs are mainly thouse that educate the young. There are often specials on animal life. A few regular children’s programs develop the child’s interest in school-type learning by stressing numbers and the alphablt, and that encourages him or her to be creative. The beneficial commercials, such as those on anti-smoking, anti-litter, and health, should be included in this category.

  On the opposite side are the shows, which are generally harmful to children. Many commercials, especially those sponsoring the children’s programs, are deliberately written to create a desire for an unnecessary product such as sugar coated cereals and candy. All adult programs that include violence or sex scenes can at best fill a child’s mind with confusing or misleading ideas, and could possib ly harden the child to violence.

  Thoughtful parents will definitely not allow their children to view the bad programs. A child’s viewing time should be limited to watching educationlly benefical programs.

  二、“The younger generaton knows best”

  Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comments is made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than ti is today. The young are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom. They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for themselves and do not blindly accept the ideas of their elders. Events, which the older generation remembers vividly, are nothing more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new generation is different from the one preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed.

  The old always assume thaty they know best for the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this precisely what the young are doing. They are questioning the assumptions of their elders and disturbing their complacency. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should wear drab grey suits and convict haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solven their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be right with the rat —race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?

  There are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past forty years or so hasn’t been exactly spotless. Traditionally, the young have turned to their elders for guilance. Today, the situation might reversed. The old—if they are prepared to admit it — could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not “sinful”. Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. It is surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure to shed restricting inhibitions. It is surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past or future. This emphasis on the present is only to be expressed because the young have grown up under the shadow of the bomb: the constant threat of complete annihilation. This is their glorious heritage. Can we be surprised that they should so often question the sanity of the generation that bequeathed it ?

  三、How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities

  With the development of modern industryu, more and more people are flowing into big cities. Accordingly, the housing problem in big cities is becoming more and more serious.

  People have offered many solutions to this problem. I think building satellite cities in the suburbs is more practical. The fresh air and beautiful secnery in the suburbs will be appealing to the city citizens, who suffer from air pollution, noises, etc. in the overcrowded city. With more people leaving the city, more space will be available for those remaining. The housinmg problem in big cities will thus be solved.

  四、Public Transportation

  As part of domestic modernization, public transportation needs to be developed urgently in China. I can illustrate some examples.

  There does not only exist serious traffic jams but also crowded buses, underground and railways. Commuters find it hard to get to work on time due to overcrowded buses or tubes. Travelers could hardly get on buses in big cities during weedends owing to fewer buses and more people. When Spring Festival is drawing near, there is much greater –ressure on public transportation since it has to deal with a large number of travelers rushing home. And travelers need special arrangements to go home. In a word, public transportation has become bottleneck to the advanc of Chinese economy.

  To solve the above-mentioned problems, the departments concerned should carry out the following steps: to build more roads, highways or railways and to add buses or trains to the original lines. But ther funds have to be raised both from the government and the public.

  There are three sources for fund raising. One is to raise the fares for all kinds of all transportation vehicles. Another is to increase the prices for various vehicles on sale. The third is to raise the prices of petrol and diesel oil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money to raise the prices of petrol and diesel oiil in addtion to the governmental funds. If all this money collected is used to improve transportation services, the situation will be bettered and favorable.

  The third step to take is to introduce new technology in order to raise the efficiency of vehicles. For instance, the speed of trains can be increased as much as two times so that two times as many people can be held. In this way, the pressure on public transportation can be dramatically alleviated. So in a word, we need to introduce new technology to raise the speed of vehicles while having built even wider roads and added more efficient trains and huses.

  五、Human Education

  The other day, a professor from Peking University gave a lecture “Chinese Intellectuals and Written Cultural Text”. In his lecture, he held that Chinese intellectuals have lost the written cultural text since the May 4th movement. His opinion set us thinking that the loss of traditional humane education resulted in a crisis of cultural education.

  With the rapid development of economy, the living standard of the Chinese people has improved a lot in terms of material wealth. In a period when economics take priority, people pay more aned more attention to profit. At present, moneymaking and pleasure seeking are becoming a popular fashion. On the other hand, there appears a barren field of spirit in today’s society. It has become unexpectedly hard to rebuild the paradise of traditional culture.Ideological confusion, moral decline and a chaotic cultural market, all this shows that it is the high time to have something done in order to tackle the problem of cultural orientation. Our times call for an ideal humane education.

  It is unwise to discard traditional Chinese culture as a whole. Some of the elements of this culture can be made use of in the reconstruction of our spiritual civilizaiton directly or wit5h some adaptation. Our attitude towards tradition should be “discarding the dross and selecting the essence”. The humane education of the past can serve as a supplement to our Marxist education. It should start from primary school. In this way, our children will get educated so as to be possessed of a perfect personality. The national morale will be deeply rooted in people’s mind, and will help push forward the growth of economy.

  To sum up, we can find it badly necessary to build up an ideal humane education. We should find an efficient way to develop our humane education and dig out5 more resources form traditional Chinese culture.

  六、Criticism on Television

  A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on chldren. A few years ago, the same criticisms were made of the cinema. But although child psychoilogists have spent a great deal of time studying his problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about teenager’s crimes.

  For people in the modern worlds share the views of parents a hundred years ago. In those days, writers for children carefully avoided any reference to sex in their books, but had not inhibitions about including scenes of violence.

  The evidence collected suggests, however, that neither the subject, nor the action in itself frightens children. The context in which cruely or violence occurs is much more important.

  A good guide to what is psychologically healthy for a small child is therefore provided by a television series in which a boy and a girl are supposed to be exploring distant planets with their parents. In each story, they encounter strange monsters and find themselves in dangerous situations but the parents are reassuring and sensible, as a child’s paprents should be in real life. There is an adult character who is a coward and liar, but both the children are brave and , of course, every story ends happily.

  In my view, children should be exposed to the problems of real life as soon as possible, but they cannont help seeing these through news programs. When they are being entertained, the healthiest atmosphere is one which the hero and heroine are children like themselves who behave naturally and confidently in any situation.

  七、he ony thing people are interesed in today is earing more money

  Once upon a time there lived a beautiful young woman and a handsome young man. They were very poor, but as they were deeply in love, they wanted to get married. The young people’s parents shook their heads. “You can’t get married yet.” They said. Wait till you get a good job with good prospects. So the young people waited until they found good jobs with good prospects and they were able to get married. They were still poor, of course, they didn’t have a house to live in or any furniture, but that did’t matter. They young man had a good job with good prospects, so large organizations lent him the money he needed to buy a house, some furniture, all the latest electrical appliances and a car. The couple lived happily ever after paying off debts for the rest of their lves. And so ends another modern romantic fable.

  We live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earlist years to be acquistive. Our possessions, yours and mine are clearly labeled from early childhood. When we grow old enough to earn a living, it does not surpise us to discover that success is measured in terms of the money you earn. We spend the whole of ourlives keeping up with our neighbors, the Joneses. If we buy a new television set , Jones is bound to buy a bigger and better one. If we buy a new car, we can be sure that Jones will go one better and get two new cars: one for his wife and one for himself. The most amusing thing about this game is that Joneses and all the neighbors who are struggling frantically to keep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided, at a suitable rate of interest, of course, by friendly banks, insurance companies, etc.

  It is not only affluent societies that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money. Consumer goods are desirable everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. Gone are the days when industrial goods were made to last forever. The wheels of industry must be kept turning. Built-in obsolescence provides the means; goods are made to be discarded. Cars get tinnier and tinnier. You no sooner acquire this year’s model than you are thinking about its replacement.

  This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people these days acquire knowledge only for its own sake. Every course of studies must lead somewhere. i.e. to a bigger wage packet. The demand for skilled personnel for exceeds the supply and big companies compete with each other to recruit students before they have completed their studies. Tempting salaries and “fringe benefits” are offered to them. Recruiting tactics of this kind have led to the brain drain, the process by which highly skilled people offer their services to the highest bidder. The wealthier nations deprive their poorer neighbors of their most able citizens. While Mammon is worshipped as never before, the rich get richers and the poor, poorer.

  八、Communication and Language

  One of the first things we think about when we hear the word communication language. There are thousands of languages spoken around the world today. In fact, linguistis say that there may be as many as 10000.

  Speaking with others is an important means of communication, but we can also communicate without using words, that is by nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication includes voice quality, eyes movement, facial expression and body movements such as gestures and change in body position. But many people do not realize that everyone uses nonverbal communication. Sometimes, we “say” more with our face and gestures that we do with our voices.

  Books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, are other means of communication. Today we can also communicate over long distance with the help of communications satellites. Some scientists say that soon machines will be developed for sending message through the earth. The technology necessary to build these machines is very complex. But the language we speak every day is much more complex than the most modern communication technology.

  九、Cooperation Goes with Competition

  In our times, cooperation and competition spread over the world. Both of them speed up the wheel of economy and enrich the intelligence of mankind. It is possible to accomplish a complicated program by only one person now. As we know, the more cooperation a company depends on, the more efficient it will become in business.

  Furthermore, we can’t avoid competition in our exchanges. From time to time, we compare ourselves with others, expecting to catch up with others. This is the spirit of competition, by which we pursue the highest goal. It is only by competition in the market that a company can raise its reputation. Were it not for competition, say, all of us would not enjoy what we have achieved.

  十、he Rise of Intellectual Property Protection

  Intellectural property scarcely existed in the vocabularies of academic researchers and administrators even 15 years ago. Now it is an ever-present part of discussions on research policies and directions. This new importance of intellectual property in academia reflects a changing view on ther relationships of research at universities to the surrounding society. Until recently, research at universities has been relatively isolated from demands of economic utility,and education of graduate students has emphasized a career in academic research as the final goal.

  Now almost all research universities in the United States have technology licensing operations. The number of U.S. patents granted to American universities in a year rose from about 300 in 1980 to almost 2000 in 1995. The direct economic impact of technology licensing on the universities themselves has been relatively small. In contrast, the impact of university technology transfer on the local and national economies has been substantial, and leads to the concusion that the Licensing Act () is one of the most successful pieces of economic development in recent history. It has been estimated that more than 200000 jobs have been created in the United States in product development and manufacturing of products from university licenses, with the number increasing fairly rapidly as the licenses mature.

  Intellectual property terms have become vitally important. The company wants to be assured that it can use the results of the research-and that these results will not be available to their competitors. But most universities insist that transfer of research results is key to their identity and mission and will not agree to keep the project results secret. The key to resolving this dilemman is to grant patents: the university will publish the results, but will first agree to file patents that will protect the company’s privilege in the commercial market place.

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